will requires a transcendental determination of time, which entails

will first explain Kant’s account of schemata in the Schematization of the Pure Concepts of Understanding, and subsequently
present his argument against idealism in his
Refutation of Idealism. In the former, Kant wants to show how
concepts can
be applicable to appearances. To answer this, he thinks a transcendental
deduction of judgment is necessary. Kant introduces the notion of
transcendental schema. A schema is both sensible and intellectual, and
in our imagination. The application of a concept to an appearance
requires a transcendental
determination of time, which entails both pure concepts of the
understanding and
appearances, and serves as the schemata which negotiates the inclusion
appearances under pure concepts. Schemata serves as the foundation of
concepts in place of images, and are rules which determine how a priori
concepts can be applied to appearances. The schema for concepts derived
the senses exist solely in thought, whereas the schema of concepts not
from senses exist as pure synthesis. Without schemata of the
sensibility, the
categories could not arise, but such schemata at the same time limits
their application to the sensibility. In the latter, Kant sets out to
prove, contra Descartes’ problematic idealism, that we have real
experience, not just imaginary
experience. He claims that we can know that external things exist
by virtue of knowing that we have internal experiences. We have
knowledge of
our existence in time, and our conception of time presupposes our
of permanence. Such permanence is not to be found within us, for
permanence is
what allows us to acquire the knowledge of our existence in time. In
order for us
to be conscious of permanence, it is necessary that permanent things
exist, and our knowledge that we exist in a temporal order is possible
only if external
things exist. Ultimately, the perception of our own existence is also a
perception of external existence.


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