Throughout out over five years, and followed the progress

Throughout my essay, I will be completing a thorough analysis of,
“Would you like to tidy up now” written by Iram Siraj-Blatchford and Laura
Manni (2008).  This article was
originally written and researched by Researching Effective Pedagogy in the
Early Years (REPEY).  It gathered quantitative
data. “Quantitative data is numerical and acquired through counting or
measuring and contrasted with qualitative data.” As cited by thoughtco.com.   All data
was provided by Effective Provision of Pre-School Education (EPPE).  To show the most effective early years
pedagogical methods.  The research was
carried out over five years, and followed the progress of 3000 children in 141
pre-schools in England.  Throughout the
entirety of my essay I will be making a summary of the article and I will also
discuss the idea of trustworthiness by Lincoln and Guba.

 

The central aim of Siraj-Blatchford and Mannis’ article of “Would
you like to tidy up now?” was to “provide a more thorough analysis of the forms
of questioning applied” as cited by Siraj-Blatchford and Manni (2008, page 5).  Both Siraj-Blatchford and Manni, were determining
whether asking children open-ended questions, would help contribute and
increase their development.  An effective
method of pedagogical strategy; to be used is the idea of scaffolding. This may
also involve Vygotsky and his idea of Zone of Proximal Development. There is a
concept that “the aim of the adult is to support the children in their efforts
towards the level at which they are capable of working.” (Wood et al, 1976:32) which
cited in Anning et al 2004.  Scaffolding is
when teachers who are questioning children, heavily support how they answer the
question, and begin to control the children by the means in which they question
and interfere with their answers.   This
interrupts the child thought process and eventually their answer and what they
decide to disclose in this.

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The survey was originally created, in order to attempt to improve
‘sustained shared thinking’.  M. Dowling
(2005) said that sustained, shared thinking is the process “which involves the
adult being aware of the child’s interests and understanding, and the adult and
child together developing an idea or skill”. As cited in “Supporting Young Children’s Sustained Shared Thinking (2005).”  This suggestion allows children to develop and explain their ideas
and what they mean to them, this encourages deeper thinking into the answers
they wish to provide.  ‘Sustained shared
thinking’ became important in the ‘Principle of Learning and Development’ for
the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS).

 

However, the research was originally created to provide a continuation
of the analysis of adult questioning.  This
was a quantitative data study which followed the previous five-year study taken
by EPPE.  The study followed 3000
children in 114 early years’ settings in England, with the central point of identifying
categories and different forms of questioning and form better relationships
with the children that develop through adult questioning and better verbal
interactions.

 

This study was completed ‘blind’. This means that the researchers
would have no idea what the end outcomes would be from this study. A major
learning theory is that of Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory. He looked at the
systems that will influence a child’s life while in education. The five
different systems heavily affect the way in which any child answers the
different types of questions in the pre-school and this is the main focus
behind the original study which was performed by EPPE.

 

Throughout their study, by both Siraj-Blatchford and Manni into
the EPPE research, it soon became clear that there was an indication that high
cognitive outcomes were a result of interactions between the practitioner and
the child. Siraj-Blatchford and Manni (2008) found different forms of
categories with different types of questioning including closed ended.  26.54% of questions asked were closed and this
gave a rough expectation of what answers a child might give in response.
Although, there were also open questions which were 0.08% Anning et al “see’s
children as having no control in their communication as their ideas are rarely
heard and listened to depending on what the teacher is interested in. Interaction’s
between both the adult practitioner and child are vitally important.” Tizard
and Hughes cited in Siraj-Blatchford and Manni (2008) “found that 70% of
children aged four to six years held the concept of teacher control and were
seeking permission and classification from the teachers through verbal
interaction”.

 

However, it can also be clearly said that the “ethos of shared
thinking can encourage young children to contribute without fear of any form of
negative evaluation” as cited by Siraj- Blatchford and Manni (2008, page 8).  During the 1970s and 1980s researchers
studying classroom interactions in America first identified “a triadic sequence
of ‘Initiation’, ‘Response’ and ‘Evaluation’ (the ‘IRE’) that often appeared to
represent ‘the most common pattern of classroom discourse at all grade levels”.
 (Cazden, 1988,29).  Cazden (1988) showed how the initiation
component of the IRE was nearly always a question.  Another theorist was G, Wells (1946).
His study found that questions asked at home fell from 12.7% and 4% asked at
school. As cited by, The Meaning Makers: Children Learning Language and Using Language
to Learn.

 

Naturally, although Siraj-Blatchford and Manni found clear
patterns between child development and adult-child conversations by questioning
children in the early years setting.  There
are many who argue that the study is not trustworthy.  Lincoln and Guba (1985; p290) conclude that
there are four mains issues that vastly impact how trustworthy this study is.  These are credibility, transferability,
dependability and conformability.

 

Credibility is “confidence in the ‘truth’ of the findings” as
cited by Lincoln and Guba.  Because the
REPEY study was a further development of the original EPPE longitude study, it
is clear that the credibility in this study is highly trustworthy, as it
considers situations over a large amount of time.

 

A second issue, within the trustworthiness of this study is
transferability.  This shows that the
findings are appropriate in other environments as cited by Lincoln and Guba.  This can be enforced onto a wider audience and
provides clearer knowledge to adults to be aware of developing ideas as opposed
to just asking closed questions to children.

 

With dependability, however, it shows that the findings are
consistent and could be repeated to show more reliability as cited by Lincoln
and Guba.  The research shows dependability
as other research carried out at an earlier time, follows a much simpler path
to pedagogical learning and how the outcomes of the other research shows similarity
to those of the REPEY and EPPE studies.

 

Finally, is conformability.  This is when a “degree of neutrality or the
extent to which the findings of a study are shaped by the respondents and
researcher bias, motivation, or interest.” As cited by Lincoln and Guba.  Some of the questions asked allowed the
children to feel like they had a sense of control, due to the type of questions
asked and how they then followed that by their reply.  But, despite this, not all of the answers
provided by the children were used in the data.  Furthermore, many teachers did not all the
children to answer the questions fully and with their own ideas.  Instead they were stopped; corrected by the
teachers, taking away some of the control the children though they had.  Conclusively, the study is trustworthy, as in
terms of analysing the data, the research covered all of the four issues needed
to consider the article to be deemed trustworthy or not.

Alongside the issues of trustworthiness with the survey, is the
fact that we are unsure where the survey took place.  This could suggest whether we should use the
results of this research all over the United Kingdom or Europe. Naturally, if
the survey took place in England, then you are unable to transfer the data to
Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland as they all have different education
systems.  Likewise, if the survey took
place elsewhere then the same problems occur.  As a result, the issue of transferability is
not possible and therefore, decreases the amount of trustworthiness that this
article can give to another researcher.  Meanwhile,
if the results were shared with another part of the UK, it allows them to
compare their Pre-school practices against the results shown in this article
and improve their methods.

 

 A second potential issue
with this study is how unknown the qualifications of staff members are.    If a staff member does not have a
qualification, or they were originally trained for another setting such as
primary or secondary education.  Then the
overall conclusion would change because the data would vary from someone who is
trained in the early years setting to someone who is not.  This impacts the research vastly as you need
to come to a valid and correct conclusion as these effects the articles
trustworthiness and the ability for it to help other pre-schools improve their
practice and overall the early years sector.

 

A final implication might be the use of teachers using open ended
questions.  They have to think carefully
on the question they will ask the child so that it is asked as an open-ended
question as opposed to a closed question.  This impacts the training of teachers, as they
need to be aware of the questions they are asking.  The results of open-ended questions are more
beneficial to children because they can expand on their answers and this
overall gives the teacher or their peers a wider idea of their views.  For the children there is no incorrect answer
in the way they can reply to a question.  Open ended questions leave the young children
able to view their opinions without the fear of receiving negative comments or
evaluations by the teachers.  For the
teachers however, they have to spend more time planning and creating classroom
activities or when marking a child’s work. This is also covered in teacher
training, which results in more time and money, but, naturally hugely helps the
children expand their knowledge, views and eventually leads to greater child
development.

 

In conclusion, the results of the EPPE show the clear results of
the research, involving first-hand pedagogical approaches to early years staff
including their techniques; and the way in which they question children to
improve their cognitive development. 
Throughout my essay, I have discussed the reasons behind the idea of the
study and the way in which it was carried out. 
The study can be seen as both trustworthy and reliable, and the results
can be used in other studies because of the approaches which were taken place
in this research.  During a child’s time
in education, the education system changes vastly and constantly and the types
of questions they can be asked are used continuously to control children’s
ideas and views to specific things.  This
can be taken as very controlling as we should allow our children to voice their
opinions and ideas as this improves their thinking skills in a shorter space of
time allowing for more development in their time in pre-school.  Finally, the study shows ways where early
years practitioners can greatly improve their verbal interactions with children
and in general the early years foundation stage.  Overall, the use of the impact of the results
collected in this study will improve children’s development and the time it takes
them to reach a certain mental stage through the use of open questions.  The importance of the early years
practitioners and their interactions is shown through the independence of the
child and the results they give.

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