R.Gopali, Rima Ghose Chowdhury (2014). Leadership Styles and Employee

R.Gopali, Rima
Ghose Chowdhury (2014). Leadership Styles and Employee Motivation: An Empirical
Investigation in a Leading Oil Company in India. IMPACT: International Journal of Research in Business Management
(IMPACT: IJRBM) ISSN(E): 2321-886X; ISSN(P): 2347-4572 Vol. 2. The study
explores how at the western region of a leading oil and refinery Company,
leadership styles (the independent variable) influence employee motivation (the
dependent variable). Data of both types, primary and secondary, have been used
for the study. Secondary data has been collected through published data in
public domain. For primary data, using random sampling, 75 questionnaires were
distributed, out of which 50 were completed. The questionnaire contains
different elements drawn from a) The Full Range Leadership Development Model,
developed by Bass and Avolio (1994) and b) Work Motivation Scale. The
instrument employs 29 questions on Leadership style and 10 questions on
Motivation, on a 5-point and 7-point scale respectively. The survey was
administered between Jan and March 2014. The researcher found that the dominant
leadership styles were transformational and transactional and employees were
moderately motivated. The results show that different leadership style factors
will have different impacts on employee motivation components. Co-relation
between Transformational Leadership styles and employee motivation is positive
and the score is 0.602. Co-relation between transactional style and motivation
is also positive and the score is 0.329. However, the degree of co-relation is
less, which means that, transformational style of leadership motivates
employees more than transactional style. Laissez-fairre style, on the other
hand, has a negative co-relation with motivation. This means that employees are
not satisfied. All the co-relations are highly significant.

Liridon Veliu, Mimoza
Manxhari, Visar Demiri, Liridon Jahaj (2017). The Influence of Leadership
Styles on Employee’s Performance. Journal
of Management ?
2 (31).
This
study investigates the employees performance at Business Organizations in
Kosovo due to effect of different leadership styles. The impact of autocratic;
bureaucratic; charismatic; democratic; laissez-faire; transformational and
transactional leadership styles on employee performance at Business
Organizations in Kosovo is determined. The role of leaders in today’s
organizations has changed and the success of any organization relies on the
leadership styles practiced by the leaders. A good leader understands the importance
of employees in achieving the goals of the organization, and that motivating
the employees is of paramount importance in achieving these goals. Different
leadership styles bring about different consequences, which have direct or
indirect impact on the attitude and behaviors of the employees. The findings of
this study indicated that democratic, autocratic and transformational
leadership styles positively impacted the level of employee performance.  The results of the correlation analyses
revealed that charismatic, bureaucratic, laissez-faire and transactional
leadership style has a negative impact on the level of employee performance but
statistically it is not significant. Each leadership style is a combination of
different types of behavior and characteristics of leaders. If there is the
need to make a decision quickly and take urgent action, a leader should rely on
the autocratic style. If the group is undisciplined and poorly organized, the
autocratic style is more efficient. The democratic leadership style matches
with a well-organized and stable group. In the longer term, the democratic
style of leadership, which includes giving employees a certain freedom and
involving them in decision-making, is more productive.  The transformational leadership style matches
with attempts to induce followers to reorder their needs by transcending
self-interests and strive for higher order needs. The result clearly indicates
that transformational leadership is correlated with employee performance. These
results also informed that employee performance is heavily relying on
leadership and it can play a vital role in determining the performance of
employees, so managers must carefully analyze, what kind of leadership they
should adopt if they to want to increase employee performance.

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Iqbal, Anwar, Haider (2015).
Effect of Leadership Style on Employee Performance. Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review. The purpose of
the study was to investigate the effect of the different leadership styles
(autocratic, democratic, and participative) on the employees’ performance. The
autocratic style is characterized by an “I tell” philosophy. The democratic
approach is characterized by an “I share” philosophy. Participative leadership
style is that involves all members of a team in identifying essential goals and
developing procedures or strategies for reach those goals. One of the main
benefits of participative leadership is that the process allows for the
development of the additional leaders who can serve the organization at a later
date. As elaborate by Myron Rush and Cole the participative style of leadership
has a greater positive effect on employee performance in which situation
employee feel power and confidence in doing their job and in making different
decisions. And in autocratic style leaders only have the authority to take
decisions in which employees’ feels inferior in doing jobs and decisions. In
democratic style employee have to some extent discretionary power to do work so
their performance is better than in autocratic style. The
authoritative style is appropriate when new employees are unfamiliar and don’t
have sufficient know how about their jobs. The consultative style is
appropriate when organization needs creative problem solving. The participative
style is appropriate when organization have competent and talented team members.
The democratic leadership style in Al-Ghazi tractor factory would further
empower their employees by developing teams and according some measure of power
and authority to their employees. The Al-Ghazi tractor factory would immediate
reduces the autocratic leadership practices. Hence, Al-Ghazi tractor factory
would advocate for the better leadership styles that suites different
situations so as to reduce the dominance of autocratic leadership unless in
situations where it is necessary.

Somaye Bahmanabad. A
Case Study of the Impact of Leadership Styles on Bank Employees’ Job
Satisfaction. Södertörn
university, The Institute of Social Sciences, Bachelor Thesis 15 hp.
Leadership
affects the organization effectiveness in a numerous amount of ways. Due to
circumstances there are a number of changes that take place in leadership.
Leadership is the powring force that governs the functioning of the employees;
especially in the banking sector.  Questionnaire
in the form of survey was used to collect the data. The data was tested using the
Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) Method using Lisrel software. The impact of
using transformational, relation-oriented and transactional leadership styles and
their direct effect on job Satisfaction. A total of one hundred questionnaires
were distributed among SEB and Swede bank´s employees and seventy-one fully
answered questionnaires were used for statistical analysis. In other words,
seventy-one percent of the questionnaires were returned.  The results clearly show that leadership
style (Relation-oriented, Transactional, and Transformational) have a
significantly positive effect on both the employer and employee’s satisfaction
with the job.  The results indicate that
the Transformational approach ads the most contribution toward job satisfaction
compared to the Transactional and Relation-oriented styles of leadership. There
is a significant relationship between the transactional leadership and job
satisfaction. There is a significant relationship between the relation-oriented
leadership and job satisfaction.

Linjuan Rita Men (2010). Measuring the Impact of Leadership Style and Employee
Empowerment on Perceived Organizational Reputation. Institute of public relations.
The current study examines the impact of organizational leadership on
public relations effectiveness from an internal perspective. Specifically, it
builds links between leadership style, employee empowerment, and employees’
perception of organizational reputation. The results showed that
transformational leadership positively influences employees’ perception of
organizational reputation, not only directly but also indirectly, through
empowering employees. Transactional leadership represented by contingent reward
behavior has a significant negative direct effect on employees’ perception of
organizational reputation. Transformational leaders are more likely to delegate
power to employees and involve them in decision making than transactional
leaders. Employees who feel more empowered in terms of competence and control
tend to have a more favorable evaluation of organizational reputation.
Significant theoretical and practical implications of the findings are
discussed.

Weiping
Jiang, Xianbo Zhao, Jiongbin Ni (2017). The Impact of Transformational
Leadership on Employee Sustainable Performance:The Mediating Role of
Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Transformational leadership has drawn
extensive attention in management research. In this field, the influence of
transformational leadership on employee performance is an important branch.
Recent research indicates that organizational citizenship behavior plays a
mediating role between transformational leadership and employee performance.
However, some of these findings contradict each other. Given the background
where greater attention is being paid to transformational leadership in the
construction industry, this research aims to find the degree of the influence
of transformational leadership on employee sustainable performance, as well as
the mediating role of organizational citizenship behavior. A total of 389
questionnaires were collected from contractors and analyzed via structural
equation modeling. The findings reveal that employee sustainable performance is
positively influenced by transformational leadership. In addition, more than
half of that influence is mediated by their organizational citizenship
behavior. These findings remind project managers of the need to pay close
attention to transformational leadership, to cultivate organizational citizenship
behavior, and thereby to eventually improve employee’s sustainable performance.

Ali
M. Alghazo , Meshal Al-Anzi (2016) The Impact of Leadership Style on Employee’s
Motivation. International Journal of Economics and Business Administration.
This mixed methods study aimed to examine the relationship between the
adopted leadership style and employees motivation in a private petrochemical
company that is located in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. A survey was
developed and distributed to 30 employees in two departments. Furthermore,
interviews were conducted with a focus group of 10 employees to validate the
results of the survey. The study found that there is a strong relationship
between leadership style and employee motivation where the correlation was
positive with transformational style and negative with transactional style. The
purpose of this research was to examine the perception of private petrochemical
company employees about the leadership styles and its effect on employee
motivation. A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods was used in
this study. Results from data collected indicate that leaders who adapt
participative and transformational leadership are more likely to create an
atmosphere of motivation among their employees. In general, transformational
leadership might be of more preference for the employees of this study than
transactional. The implication of this study is that managers who want to be
more effective might need to be more inspirational, supportive, resourceful,
and work to develop their subordinate’s capabilities. Further research is
required to the study findings with the similar firms in the region.

This study examines the impact of leadership
style on employees performance in an organization. It went ahead in
ascertaining the relationship between employees’ performance and productivity,
which is the hallmark of the organization goals and objectives. The study
revealed that there is significance relationship between leadership style and
employees’ performance in the attainment of organization goals and objectives. Effective
leadership and management are widely heralded as key priority for national and
regional development, yet the process by which they are enhanced by training
and development and how they impact upon performance remain poorly understood.
There is lack of reliable data to link management and leadership development
with leadership capability and individual and organizational performance and the
evidence ‘suggest a more complex relationship between them’ than often assumed.
Leadership exists on many levels; throughout all aspects of the society. The
common purpose that motivates leaders is the overall accomplishment of the
organization or the system. After recognizing leadership as a system, it
becomes clear that an understanding of the relationship between leaders and
their constituents is essential. In addition, developing and maintaining
successful organizations require leaders to understand the culture of the organization
to adapt to the challenges of the environment and to respect the constituents
that make up the organization.The responsibility of leadership extends from the
executive officers and beyond “the-local levels of the public. The possibilities
and limitations of leaders must be understood so that the workers can
intelligently strengthen and support “good” leadership. Many have described the
skills and the tasks necessary to be a leader and it is likely that these
skills are widely distributed throughout the society. An important question is
how this reservoir can be tapped.

A leadership style is a leader’s
way of providing direction, implementing plans and motivating people.
Leadership styles include autocratic, bureaucratic, charismatic, participative,
transactional, laissez-faire, task-oriented, people-oriented, servant, and
transformational styles. These styles can be grouped into three broad
categories of authoritarian, democratic or liberal leadership. This study
investigated the leadership styles librarians in regional libraries based in
Arusha, Tanzania apply as well as the impact of the styles on the performance
of their libraries. From the foregoing, the authors conclude that their a 50-50
preference and use of both liberal and democratic leadership styles by the
library leaders in the regional libraries in Arusha. None of the leaders use
authoritarian leadership style. The liberal and democratic leadership styles
are suitable for these libraries because their staff are highly trained and
have been leaders in their own countries before joining the regional
institutions. Thus, they are capable to make valuable contributions to the
strategic and operational agenda of the libraries. These leadership styles have
enhanced the performance of the libraries by mainstreaming the contribution of
the staff to the vision and mission of the libraries and their parent
organisations; enhanced the quality and effectiveness of the services delivered
by the libraries; improved cost-effectiveness and efficiency of the service
delivery approaches; and increased the capacity of the libraries to grow by
managing change through innovation. Authoritarian leadership is not suitable
for the libraries of the regional institutions in Arusha, Tanzania.

This research work is a finding that examines
the impact of leadership style on organizational productivity in study of Benue
links Nigeria limited Makurdi. The objective of the study is to examine the
impact of transformational leadership style on productivity, impact of
transactional leadership style on productivity and impact of laissez-faire
leadership style on productivity. The research problem among others includes
the style of leadership that improve productivity and ones that hampers
productivity. The population of this study involve 232 staffs of the study
organization with the sample size of 147. Probability sampling techniques was
adopted and the questionnaire method was used in collecting the data. Data were
analysed using simple percentage and SPSS. The findings show that there is a
significant relationship between transformational leadership style and
productivity, hypothesis 2 shows a stronger relationship between transactional
and productivity, also hypothesis 3 shows that there is a strong relationship
between laissez-faire leadership and productivity. It is recommended that
transformational and transactional leadership style should be more adhered to
since it have strong effect on organizational productivity and leaders with
laissez-faire leadership style should always be available for group members for
consultation and feedback.

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