Phillip Movement (Central High School Integrated). During the late
Phillip XouiyavongMr. SchmidComp l T/TH15 December, 2017Little Rock Nine In the nineteen fifties and sixties, while the civil rights movement was happening, segregation was still within public schools. This happened even while the United States government passed the Fourteenth Amendment and when the landmark Supreme Court case of 1945, Brown Vs. Board of Education was still in trial. Although the government ruled to end racial segregation, it was still the start of it in Little Rock, Arkansas. The Little Rock Nine has became a major landmark in history that has helped advance de-segregation within schools, and also played a major role within the Civil Rights Movement (Central High School Integrated). During the late nineteen fifties, children who were African-American were not allowed to enroll into an all white school. It was until then laws were changed to end segregation, after the Brown Vs. Board of Education case of 1954 (Eisenhower and the Little Rock Crisis). The Brown Vs. Board of Education had many other cases involved from Kansas, Delaware, the District of Columbia, South Carolina, and Virginia, which all the cases challenged the racial segregation within these public schools (History and Culture). The U.S. Supreme court ruled in favor of the students that were involved with the case, they agreed aswell that separating schools due to the color of someone’s skin was unconstitutional under the Fourteenth Amendment (Brown v. Board of Education). After laws were passed, all schools within the United States were supposed to be open for all who enrolled, which lead to African-American students to enroll in schools all over the country. In Little Rock, Arkansas, over two hundred american-American students enrolled into one of the three all white high schools known as Central High. This caused an outrage of those who were white within the city, they began to locate those who enrolled, and began to threaten them, and do damage to their homes. When this happened the enrollment of the African-American students went from two hundred, to just only nine applicants left (Crisis in Little Rock). These students then became to be known as the “Little Rock Nine”. The Little Rock Nine included Melba Pattillo, Carlotta Walls, Elizabeth Eckford, Ernest Green, Gloria Ray, Jefferson Thomas, Minnijean Brown, Terrence Roberts, and Thelma Mothershed (Little Rock Nine Foundation). These are the nine students who resisted all the threats that were happening, and were determined to study at Central High (Crisis in Little Rock). On September 2nd, 1957, the night before classes began at Central High School for the Little Rock Nine, the governor of Arkansas Orval Faubus summoned the National Guard to block any African-American students from entering the school. The nine students attempted to enter the school, but then were turned away. The governor claimed his actions to do so, to prevent violence, property damage, and to “preserve the peace” (Central High). Once the word spread of what happened, President Dwight D. Eisenhower, got involved with the problem. Eisenhower then telegrammed Governor Faubus. He stated when he became president he took an oath to defend and support the constitution of the United States, and ordered for Faubus to remove the troops within the school, if failure to do so action would have taken placed. Faubus then agreed to remove the troops (Telegram from Eisenhower to Faubus). After being suspended from the school, two weeks after the Little Rock Nine were finally allowed to go back to school. Eight of the nine car-pooled together, but because Eckford’s family didn’t have a phone she arrived later than the others. Protesters surrounded Central High, on the day the Little Rock Nine came back, the protesters began to scream, and threaten them outside and within the school. Due to the police feeling as if it gotten too out of control, they had to send the nine students back home once again, which they left from the backside to avoid any of them getting harmed. It wasn’t until President Eisenhower sent 1,200 armed troops of the 101st Airborne Division, to help escort the students into the school, and help them get to classes without any trouble, that they were allowed to go back into Central High School. On September 25th, 1957, the Little Rock Nine were able to attend their first full school day, this lead to a huge impact on the Civil Rights Movement (Little Rock Nine’: 60th Anniversary of Central High Integration). Although the Little Rock Nine had protection, school was still difficult, for example though they attended the school, they were not allowed to be in any extracurricular activities. They also faced constant physical and verbal harassment throughout the whole year, although the Airborne Division were there with them, they couldn’t protect them everywhere such as when they went into bathrooms. The nine went through lots of obstacles, such as Pattillo had acid thrown at her face, Ray was pushed down the stairs, and Brown was expelled for trying to retaliate after students threw a purse full of locks. (Little Rock Nine’: 60th Anniversary of Central High Integration). As the school year continued, one year after the school was integrated, governor Faubus decided to close the school, after a public vote. The vote was whether the people of Little Rock were in favor or not of integration and 19,470 were against it, while 7,561 were for it. This only allowed Green out of the nine to receive his high school diploma that year, he then became an Assistant Secretary of Labor for Employment and Training for President Jimmy Carter, he also worked for President Clinton as Chairman of the African Development Foundation . (Central High School Integrated). Later on in life, Mothershed, Thomas, and Walls also graduated from Central High School, earning their high school diploma from there. Mothershed went on to become a teacher in St. Louis, Thomas became active in NAACP as a youth council treasurer, Walls pursued a career as a real estate broker. Pattillo moved to Santa Rosa, California and lived with a sponsor family, in which she her high school diploma there and became a reporter for NBC news. Eckford moved to St Louis, and got her high school diploma there, then later on became a member of the U.S. Army, and also worked as a substitute teach at Little Rock Central High. Ray graduated from a high school in Kansas City, Missouri and earned her diploma there, then later on co-funded Computers in Industry. Brown earned her diploma from New Lincoln High School, and became and speaker, and also worked at the Department of Interior. Roberts moved to Los Angeles and earned his diploma there, then became a CEO of a company. (Little Rock Nine Foundation) In 1957, a foundation was created in honor of them called “The Little Rock Nine Foundation”. The foundation is to promote ideal justice, and an equal opportunity for all. The goal of the foundation is to help financially and help students achieve their academic goals. The 60th anniversary of this foundation has just passed, September 25th, 2017 (Little Rock Nine Foundation). In conclusion, the Little Rock Nine played a major role into promoting the civils rights of African-Americans. The nine became a huge factor to help push a law to stop schools from being segregated throughout the whole United States. This has improved school systems by letting any race enroll into schools, instead of just having all whites and all blacks. Life would have been completely different if it wasn’t for them being brave.