I. such as, discrimination, racism, and segregation that come
I. IntroductionNowadays, the number of ads produced by various trademarks displays the message that being white is better than being black. From the product advertisement, take an example from beaty brands. Body lotion shows that the transformation people is getting white, shining, and free from black spots. Indeed, an advert does not express anything through the word, but from the symbol of any advertisement, it can change the people mind that the meaning of the beauty, good people, strong people or anything which is related to something good are come from to the white symbol. And sometimes the way they present the advertisements make a conclusion that racism and discrimination to black people or African-America community still exist in the environment of American society and other countries.Since the appearance of racism in black community of African-American that still endure eventhough that slavery America is prohibited after the declaration of Human Right in 1948 black people in America still get bad treatment such as, discrimination, racism, and segregation that come from white people. Therefeore, I want to discuss this issue from one of the advertisements “Dove Body Lotion” that make assumption about being a black is not good enough than being a white. The aim to analyze this topic is to to develop an understanding or to provide knowledge regarding of the racism issue that still exist in American society and the reason why racism is difficult to erase in America. At the same time, the advantage of the study is theoretical advantage that is expected to enrich the insight on racism issues that are still ingrained in the American community through the media. II. Director”Dove Body Lotion” that was posted on the US Facebook site on February 2017. The duration of this video only about three seconds. Actually, in spite of this advertisement has removed from the Dove official facebook site, it went viral on social media and youtube after Naomi Leann Blake, an make up artist and model, posted them to her facebook page. Thus, on this clip, this advert shows a black woman removing her brown shirt to reveal a white woman that implying after using this body lotion product. It can be clear that black woman turning into white woman and it seems more beautiful skin than black woman.III. Theory and MethodIn this paper, the method of collecting data and analysis that I use is textual and contextual analysis. The definition of textual anaysis according to Frey’s book in “An Introduction to Research Methods” (1999) states that the textual analysis method is using to describe and interpret the characteristics of a record or visual message and the purpose is to represent the content of the messages. In close viewing, one of the element that I would like to discuss is cinematic elements. After reading on Bordwell and Thompson’s book entitled “Film Art an Introduction Eighth Edition” (2008:190) about cinematography that one of cinematic elements, it can be concluded that the frame of positions, called angle, and camera distance are some terms in cinematography. Angle is divided into three general categories. They are the straight-on angle that is the most common angel in order the viewer can see in equal with the object, the high angle which the position is looking down on the action, and the last is the low angle that looking up at the frame positions. Move to the definition of camera distance according to “Film Art an Introduction Eighth Edition” (2008:191) is the size framing images from movie maker. It can be divided into seven shots. They are extreme long shot; the human figure is barely visible, long shot; figures are more leading,but the background still dominates, medium long shot when figures shots from about the knees up, medium shot frames the human body from waist up, medium close-up that figures shot from the chest up, close up that is showing only the head; hands; feet; or small object. And the last is the extreme close-up which out a portion of the face or aggrandize an object. Besides textual method, I also look for the meaning of contextual method. According to Hestetun in journal of American Studies in Scandinavia, volume 25, entitled “Text, Contex, and Culture in Literary Studies” in 1993 states that the focus of contextual is to get the social dimensions or issues as gender, race, ethnicity, and class in relation to cultural product. Moreover, contextual try to establish the relationship between individual text, a historical cultural context, and system of power. They are tending to apply strategies od ideological critique in order to examine the historical, social, cultural, and political range of literature.Thus, through the contextual method, the theory that I use is sociological in racism. According to Clair and Denis in Scholar Harvard article “Sociology of Racism” argue that it is the study of the relationship between racism, racial discrimination, and racial inequality. Thus, in sociological theory, I also mention racism and blackness concept that can be used to get more data analyze. According to the book “Introduction to Sociology” (2013) chapter 11 page 232 racism is a stronger type of prejudice that are used to make a belief that one racial category is somehow superior or inferior to others, and a set of practices used by a racial majority to damage a racial minority. Blackness concept according to the Hrabovsky’sarticle “The Concept Blackness in Theories of Race” (2003) states that is concerning lower status for black skin. Therefore, with the textual and contextual method, and using racism and colorism theory, it can be used as a benchmark in analyzing the data.IV. Result and DiscussionA. Textual AnalysisIn discussing the video advertisement Dove body lotion using the method of textual analysis with close viewing, the type of frame positions or angle on this video advertisement is the straight-on angle. Therefore, the camera angel is aligned with the object in order the viewer can see in equal with the figure. Regarding of camera distance, this advertisement can be categorized into medium shot since the figure shots from the waist up. The next aspect that I will discuss is about why racism still exist in America society in the context of sociology theory. Again, racism is the idea used to make right the belief that one group is superior or inferior and better than other races. When discussing about racism in America society, we need to looking back into 17th century. As we know that racist began during the period of slavery and according to the history slavery in America, slavery began practiced in the 17th and 18th centuries, and slaves themselves helped build the economic foundations of the new nation. Black people are believed to be inferior nation and the idea of white people is superior and better than blacks so that they were treated horribly and no one respect to them when being as slave. Moreover, they worked all day, all times, and taking all of their masters ask for. After that, in the 19th century,the end of slavery officially abolished in the late of 1865 after the 13th amendment adopted. Despite at the time blacks officially free from slavery, still many whites, especially South people, they feel unhappy when that people who they once enslaved are now on an equal area with them as they held public office and pursued legislative changes for equal with white people. Thus, they were again confronted with discriminatory and racist behavior in varied kinds in the life aspects, for instance “Jim Crow” laws. To make sure that blacks is still in the backside and to keep separate them from whites, in the South Jim Craw laws were established beginning in the late 19th century. This laws had an impact on them, such as they could not use the same public facilities as whites, could not go to the same school, restaurant, cafe, and even they had no voting rights. As has been described from the previous paragraphs about racism that black people face, today people of color still face racism. In this modern era, racism bring into being all kind of refined ways. Consequently, it makes people difficult to recognize whether an action can be categorized as racism or not. Through the idea advertisement of “Dove Body Lotion”, we can see clearly that racism idea still exist even in the media.The three images from the picture 3, 4, and 5 show people from different race as if in the picture 3 from black African-American, picture 4 from white America woman, and the last from Asian in the picture 5. Maybe some of the people argue that this video advertisement is not racist advertisement since the producer of this ad only represent the beauty of diversity without considering any condition of ethnicity. If it not, then what the purpose is when black woman wear a dark shirt, and on the other sides the woman in picture 4 and 5 get dressed light-colored clothes or at least not dark as black woman wear it. As I said before, this is racist manifested in refined ways. If it’s not racism then it should be question why the black woman did not get dressed light-colored shirt that equal with two of rest. Seeing that, the viewer by being inderect, belief that the beauty or good looking standard is when you have white colored skin. Moreover, this advertisement act on behalf of the general society belief the dark colored skin is not good looking enough since many product holding competitions that some of their product can bleaching the skin. With this idea of being white colored skin is more valuable than being dark colored skin, indirect it can be categorized as being racist. Since a long time ago, being racist have been already to run in people or white American society blood. I got some of the research data from the website of “Pew Research Center Social & Demographic Trends” issued on June 27, 2016 among 3.769 participants adult that including 1.799 whites and 1.004 blacks, and 654 Hispanics. This survey focuses on the differences between blacks and whites and on treatment of black people in the America today. The survey finds that blacks still feel society around them especially white people still being racist to them. Blacks feel that they still have lower quality school than whites in 75% and other sides whites think that lower quality school of black in 53%, lack of jobs in 65% from blacks, 46% of white Americans telling race relations are generally good and 45% saying they are generally bad. Different with blacks, they say race relations are bad in 61% rather than good in 34%. Moreover, 66% of Blacks say that they are treated less fairly than whites in dealing with the police and blacks more difficult than whites when applying for a loan than whites in 66%. Therefore, this can be proven that black people from the time of slavery until now in the modern era still face racism. Then, it should be question for some of the people who think about what makes blacks still get racism and why it is very difficult to erase of being racist toward black people in America society. This issue can be clear when we see in blackness concept. Blackness concept accoding to Hrabovsky on the article “The Concept of Blackness in Theories of Race” claims that black skin is considered as damned and this is one of the reason why black people be as slaves. The concept of black itself, we have already heard that some of the poets certainly represent blackness as death, negation, and afterlife. In her article, she also mention that the differences between black and white already show up in Pythagoreans theory by Diogenes Laertius saying that Pythagoreans already regarded the white color represent a good nature and black represent a bad one. Moreover, if we look at from the Greek meaning of black skin is a result of weather conditions and become the fierce heat of the sun and also this term is describing a negative sign, such as illness. In the scope of Christianity religion, purity is related with light and impurity with darkness. Through the description of blackness concept, it can be deduced from this video advertisement of “Dove Body Lotion” that black race still get racism because the term of black as damned thing is already conceptualized in a long time ago. The black woman in that video reveal her dark shirt and turn into white woman. It clear that the advertisement about body lotion give the message that dark represent as impurity and become white as represent purity and good nature when people using this product. Therefore, black race still considered as something inferior than anything in the historical of slavery and it is difficult to erase the idea of black people as inferior. V. ConclusionIn conclusion, through the advertisement of “Dove Body Lotion” in America racism still exist, but not as fierce when the period of slavery or Jim Crow laws. Racist in this modern era manifested in refined ways, such as in the advertisement that difficult to recognize as racism. Thus, it is difficult to erase all of the idea of black people as an inferior nation and not as good as white people since the definiton of black itself are considered the worse thing is come from in a long time ago as part of American history. In evaluation, this paper that talking about the racism that still exists among blacks will be better if using more resources. As the public thinks itself about the black people that can be proven whether the ads greatly affect the mindset of the community that being racist against black people. Other data can also be obtained by using questionnaires to support the arguments.