How source since it gives empirical results that can

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How
did the pressure of international media directly affect the ending of Apartheid
in South Africa?

 

Darsh
Patel

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Fpt-956

2017

Word
Count: 2200

 

Section 1:
Identification and Evaluation of Sources

“Starring Mandela and Cosby: Media and the End(s) of Apartheid”
is a scholarly study of the media’s effects on the end of apartheid in South
Africa. This source was written by Ron Krabill, a professor at The University
of Chicago which gives value to this source in how it was written by a trusted
professional in his field. The secondary source was published approximately
twenty years after the official end of apartheid in 1991 which actually gives
the source value in that it was written a number of years after the event and
gives the benefit of hindsight. The source however does not provide a
first-hand account of the direct effects of specifically foreign media on the
end of apartheid, which gives it some limitations.

            The purpose of this source is to
inform the reader of how media created the end of apartheid in South Africa.
This gives a value in that the source talks directly of how the media
(including foreign) had an effect in the end of apartheid. This report contains
data collected from one hundred randomized interviews of white South Africans
to ensure variety in demographic groups to be represented in the sample. This
content gives a great value to source since it gives empirical results that can
show and confirm the hypotheses that exist of how media effected the people
under apartheid and joined/banded them all together to take down apartheid. In
addition, the source talks of how apartheid leaders suppressed media in order
to elongate the longevity of apartheid and how foreign media ultimately united
people, despite their differences even in beliefs, against apartheid and led to
its demise which as I explained earlier gives this source a great value.

            “Kill the Messenger: The Media’s
Role in the Fate of the World is a book that was published approximately 20
years after the end of apartheid in South Africa. This gives some limitation
right off the bat in that the source was written after the end of apartheid and
does not contain any first-hand knowledge of the effect of media on the end of
apartheid. This secondary source has the purpose of informing the reader of how
the media in some ways helped to portray the antiapartheid case but in other
manners framed antiapartheid leaders as “terrorists” and excluded coverage of
oppression. This provides a value to the source in how it gives a perspective
on the media that may not seem obvious and displays an injustice that is shown
by some media sources in favor of apartheid and even how some reporters
colluded with officials to oppress Africans. The content of this source is a
summary of how antiapartheid activists
decisively won that war, particularly in the international media – through
press, television, radio, books, theater, and music. Their war of words
persuaded leaders throughout the world to take actions that collectively, along
with the internal battles, caused the change. This provides a value in how this
source gives exact information about how foreign media as seen by
“international media” using certain means effected and helped lead to the end
of apartheid through ways such as persuading influential leaders to take a
charge against apartheid.

 

Section B:
Investigation

RQ: How did the pressure of international media directly
affect the ending of Apartheid in South Africa?

 

Introduction

During the period of 1948 to 1991 South Africa
suffered with the plague of apartheid, making the nation a largely separated
state1. It was through the brave acts of many anti-apartheid
activists that apartheid was finally brought to its knees. The fight against
apartheid was many fronted, a large portion being international media through
means of television, press, music, and books. These international media groups
persuaded world leaders to take actions that en masse, in addition to internal
conflict, instigated change in South Africa. In the scope of this
investigation, international media is referred to as any means of media whose
direct intended audience is people of another nation/region other than that of
South Africa.

 

Steve Biko

Steve
Biko was a South African anti-apartheid activist who died in the custody of the
South African government.2 This created
a huge storm both domestically and internationally in regard to his wrongful
death. The South African government dealt with domestic backlash and protest
using violence and oppression through laws; however, internationally it was
armed with money to be used to influence and persuade opinions in an attempt to
try to recover its tarnished image. This international campaign towards
international media was known as the Muldergate scandal and allocated around
$74 million dollars to influence international media.3 These
tactics failed against international media and actually backfired on the South African
government. The media moved to an absolute frenzy after the death of activist
Steve Biko, with recognized international outlets moving to question the
actions of the government and asking for answers or the resignation of President
Paul Kruger. The Washington Post newspaper openly asked: “Is there
an explanation other than a calculated official policy to physically destroy
substantial segments of the country’s black leadership, and in so doing to try
to intimidate others who would offer South Africa’s black majority alternatives
to tranquil acceptance of apartheid?”4 and CBS
News having said Biko suffered “multiple brain and body injuries,”
using language as a tool to give an incriminating outlook on the South African
government for inflicting such atrocities.5 South
Africa’s government responded with inaction and refusal to admit any guilt and
wrongdoing, the result being the opening of the floodgates by international
media. “The still unexplained death … has more than ever put the South
African system … with its provisions for unlimited detention without trial or
charges … its apparent use of brutal assault and torture – on international
trial,” wrote The Washington Post.6 It
detailed South Africa’s torture techniques:

“Bodily assault … long periods of standing, two days and more
without sleep, food, or even permission to go to the bathroom. … Electric
shock treatment applied to various parts of the body, the tying of bricks to
men’s genitals … throwing the detainee high in the air and allowing him to
land on the cement floor.”7

Steve Biko’s death lead
to the world finally seeing South Africa in its true colors for the first real
time and with the chance to do something about it now that it was in the international
spotlight. Citing the death of Steve Biko, the United States House of
Representatives approved a resolution that firmly denounced and opposed South
Africa’s “repressive measures” and called on President Carter to
“take effective measures” against the South African government.8 This was
materialized in a United States threat to impose economic sanctions unless
South Africa made “significant progress toward the elimination of
apartheid.”9
This is about the time when pressure built up by the negative coverage of the
international media on South Africa forces nations all over the world to make
the choice of acting out against apartheid through means such as sanctions and
opposition or to support the system of apartheid.

 

Post Rivonia
Trial & Nelson Mandela

            Potentially the greatest instance of international
media coverage in South Africa’s history is during the time of the Rivonia
Trial. The international community viewed this event as extremely controversial
and which expressed apartheid as a genuinely unfair system that was distinctly
discriminatory and racist.

            Potentially
the greatest instance of international media coverage in South Africa’s history
is during the time of the Rivonia Trial and imprisonment of Nelson Mandela. The
international community viewed this event as extremely controversial and which expressed
apartheid as a genuinely unfair system that was distinctly discriminatory and
racist.

            Nelson
Mandela while in prison wrote numerous letters, many of which were smuggled out
and reached international news making Mandela an international legend. Mandela
called on “democrats of all races” to oust apartheid and its leaders.
“Unite! Mobilize! Fight on! Between the anvil of united mass action and
the hammer of the armed struggle, we shall crush apartheid and white minority
racist rule. … The whole world is on our side.”10 Mandela
was right, and this prompted political and religious leaders across the globe
to call for his release. The United Nations created the Special Commission Against
Apartheid, many United States congresspersons formally requested to see Mandela,
and so many other organizations and governments requested his presence and
presented him with awards.11 The
United Nations stated that Apartheid is a “crime
against humanity,” and the struggle to eradicate it is “legitimate,”12 responding
with an instatement of an embargo on arms sales to South Africa and the review
of existing contracts “with a view to terminating them.”13
These brutal attacks against apartheid forced the system to come to an end with
President F.W. de Klerk who unleashes the freedom of South Africa and instates
equality for all, giving up his presidency.

 

 

 

1 Krabill, Ron. Starring Mandela and Cosby: Media and the End(s) of Apartheid.
University of Chicago Press, 2010.

2 Kerney, J. Reagan. “A Death in
South Africa.” The Washington Post. September 15, 1977. https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1977/09/15/a-death-in-south-africa/4c7e61c1-6480-46eb-bc9e-350673f2c3e7/?utm_term=.914fddf5787e
(accessed December 2, 2017).

3 Rees, M and Day, C. Muldergate: The story of the info scandal.
Macmillan: Johannesburg, 1980.

4 Kerney, J. Reagan. “A Death
in South Africa.” The Washington Post. September 15, 1977. https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1977/09/15/a-death-in-south-africa/4c7e61c1-6480-46eb-bc9e-350673f2c3e7/?utm_term=.914fddf5787e
(accessed December 2, 2017).

5 McHelheny, Victor K. “Arizona
Republic from Phoenix, Arizona on September 19, 1977 · Page 1.”
Newspapers.com. September 19, 1977. https://www.newspapers.com/newspage/119586767/
(accessed December 2, 2017).

6 Kerney, J. Reagan. “A Death
in South Africa.” The Washington Post. September 15, 1977. https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1977/09/15/a-death-in-south-africa/4c7e61c1-6480-46eb-bc9e-350673f2c3e7/?utm_term=.914fddf5787e
(accessed December 2, 2017).

7 Ibid.

8 History, Art &
Archives, U.S. House of Representatives, Office of the Historian. “Legislative
Interests.” Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 2008. http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Historical-Essays/Permanent-Interest/Legislative-Interests/ (accessed
December 2, 2017)

9 Ibid.

10 Krabill, Ron. Starring Mandela and Cosby: Media and the End(s) of Apartheid.
University of Chicago Press, 2010.

11 Sanders, James. A Struggle for Representation: The
International Media Treatment of South Africa, 1972-1979. University of
London, 1997.

12 Sanders, James. A Struggle for Representation: The
International Media Treatment of South Africa, 1972-1979. University of
London, 1997.

13 Ibid.

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