CHAPTER of living’ and high densities of people. There
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEWS
2.1 CHAPTER INTRODUCTION
Chapter 2 contains literature review of this research. Literature review helps study by providing evidence to the research problem. It also helps to establish a theoretical framework supporting the research topic.
Therefore, this chapter illustrates the definition of slums, principles of an affordable housing project, socio-economic impact of this project on country and residents of slums.
2.2 SLUMS –
The slum is defined as ‘low standard of living’ and high densities of people.
There were two main possible reasons for slums development in India, one is the partition of India in 1947 and another one is industrial revolution. Since 1947, slums have dramatically risen in all over the countries especially in major cities (Bandyopadhyay and Agrawal, 2013). Differences in between the economy of the rural and urban area are main factors of pulling the rural people populations towards the cities. When city authority cannot able to provide space to people those are migrating from rural areas to urban areas that led to the formation of slums. Without being asked to city authorities, these people start living in the city anywhere they find space even on road margins or places like garbage dumping yard, drains, riverbanks etc. (Kumari, 2017). In slums, peoples are living in very small living spaces. The word “slum” is used to describe unofficial settlements of people those are living in very bad conditions. In slums, there is lack of basic amenities such as sanitation, water, storm drainage, waste collection, and roads for emergency access, street lighting, and paved sidewalks. In some major cities of India, slums were unrecognized for more than 20 years (Cities alliance, 2006). According to the estimate figures, around a billion people are living in slum conditions around the world. In developing countries, numbers are increasing day by day, Slum is one of the biggest challenges in the world (unhabitat.org, 2015). Rapid non-inclusive patterns of urbanization are the main reason for slum proliferation. Around 125 million (18% of all urban units) are non-permanent structures in worldwide and around 175 million houses haven’t constructed as per the construction codes.
Slums are varying from country to country and place to place. There are two types of slums;
• Slums of hope – it is characterized by illegal inhabitants and self-built structures.
• Slums of despair –in this type of slum, environmental conditions & domestic services are going through a process of degeneration. Slums of hope represent “Declining”, neighborhoods (TheWorldBank, 2017).
According to official experts and policymakers, there are some official slums indicators –
• “Overcrowding” which means in every room more than two people are living.
• Inadequate access to safe water.
• Poor structural quality of housing.
• Insufficient access to sanitation.
• Insecurity of tenure.
In Mumbai according to a survey of 2011, nearly 41.3% of the city’s population lives in slums. In which almost 82% of people have mobile phones and same as the percentage of people are living in one single room (Bandyopadhyay and Agrawal, 2013).
2.3 HOUSING STRUCTURE IN SLUMS –
According to the survey of NSSO, slums housing structures are categorized into 3 parts; pucca, semi pucca and katcha. In 1993, NSSO survey indicated that dwelling units were distributed equally in all India level that is 1/3rd under each category; pucca, semi pucca and Katcha housing structure. In states of Maharashtra, Haryana, and Delhi, more than 50% of slums had predominantly pucca houses. In Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Bihar, more than 50% of slums had semi pucca houses (Kumari, 2017). Dharavi slum in Mumbai is a most productive slum by FAR. In India, slums are divided into two different parts: residential and industrial part. In a slum, rooms are very small and crowded; around 5-8 people sleep in 1 room (Goldberg, 2015).
In between years of 2002 to 2009, 57% of slums were pucca. A change has been noticed in some states of India such as Maharashtra, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh more than 72% of slums have used pucca materials by 2009 (Kumari, 2017).
2.4 PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABLE AFFORDABLE HOUSING CONSTRUCTION PROJECT –
2.4.1 INSPIRE LEADERSHIP –
Sustainable affordable housing project can become successful by creative and strong leadership. Good leadership is really essential especially for this particular project because of the complexity of the development process and length of this project.
Project leader of sustainable affordable housing projects should keep in mind about the importance of this project for the community and all the necessities of people (Bach et al., 2007). In any housing project, having different types of housing opportunities makes a community lively, effective, energetic, dynamic and most importantly, sustainable. In the 21st century, leadership is one of the most important skills an engineer can possess (Bhangale and Devalkar, 2017). To make affordable housing project successful, a project leader should make a good connection between communities and gain their trust so that it can help project at one level. Strong community trust and support can help affordable housing leaders to achieve their goals (Singh, 2017).
2.4.2 BUILD COMMUNITY SUPPORT AND TRUST –
In any kind of construction project especially affordable housing project, building community support and trust is very important to everyone from the neighbors of the proposed development project to the highest elected officials.
To build community support and trust first it’s very important to value other’s expectation by get to know people personally (Neagu, 2017). There are some types of innovative and traditional techniques to obtain community support and trust such as:
Government and Project managers should release architectural renderings of proposed plans that show designs and scale of project that would help to earn community trust and support, Builders and developers should announce all information related to this project such as Dates and venues of community meetings and events and Internet websites should show proposed design images, Community workshop, and community advisory groups can help to build community support and trust, 3D virtual computer models and walk through models can help the people those are going to live there to understand this project, Be trustworthy and make only true promises, Nature partnerships involving broader community, private sector and government (Bach et al., 2007).
2.4.3 MARKET AND CUSTOMERS –
Construction project managers should know everything about community,
Requirements and expectations of people those are going to live there, and it is also very important for a project manager to have knowledge of community including social, political and cultural facts of the community as well as underlying market fundamentals (Hagberg, 2006). Project leader and project managers should study about community leaders, elected officials and all information related to the market rate of a proposed site and affordable housing developers. Market research is very important in all types of projects it helps to get the actual image of this project from the eyes of the community and to verify demands of this project, which allows great support from the public (Bach et al., 2007).
2.4.4 SELECT SITES FOR OPPORTUNITY AND CHOICE–
Good Site selection is very important to maximize economic and social opportunities for the residents of slums (Bach et al., 2007).
The developer should choose an appropriate site for residential use. The site should be in the neighborhood of good environment influences. Sites should exhibit no obvious negative environmental influences, which cannot be corrected or acceptably mitigated. Environmental impacts include, but are not limited to: physical hazard from railroad or excessive noise, high tension power lines, salvage yards or sanitary landfills, air traffic, vehicular, sewage treatment plants, buried or spilled hazardous wastes, mine shafts, prime agricultural soils classification, operating oil wells, gravel pits and mine shafts (Site Selection Criteria, 2008).
2.4.5 ORCHESTRATE SUSTAINABILITY –
Over the long-term affordable housing developments are required to remain affordable. Affordable housing developers should combine sustainability into all aspects of the project to manage the property longevity. Sustainable development doesn’t need to be high-cost development because Sustainable development is high-quality development with the help of value engineering and creative design (Mäntysalo et al., 2016). There are several key qualities of the sustainable affordable housing such as: fosters environmental integrity, economic vitality and encourages a sense of community today and for future generations. Most important sustainability affordable housing will help to promote health, natural recourses and conserve energy and most important to provide easy access to schools, jobs, and services. Flexible approach and long-term thinking are required in sustainable development.
(Bach et al., 2007).
2.4.6 DESIGN –
A better design is very important for a successful project. Designing a sustainable affordable housing is not an easy task. To make a construction project successful, architects, civil engineers, and project managers have to work together to give a better design with the help of previous successful affordable housing projects. It’s very important while designing affordable housing to make better changes from the previous affordable housing projects in all over the world (Bach et al., 2007).
2.4.7 HEALTH AND EDUCATION –
According to the survey, in unstable housing situation children are less likely to get the food they need to live proper and healthy otherwise there is a risk for lifelong health problems (Brisson, Duerr and Rosenman, 2014). Health condition of people in slums is not good because of poor quality of food, unhygienic environment, poor sanitation (Gupta and Guin, 2015). There are two different types of moves on children education: school mobility (changing schools without changing residences) and residential mobility (moving to a new house without changing schools). According to the research, school mobility is harmful as compare to residential mobility if children change schools very often. Overcrowd houses in slums can affect health and education especially Children living in crowded homes may experience the negative impact on education, overcrowded may increase noise and chaos that affect children’s education. Sustainable affordable housing program will help the condition of health and education quality by providing proper sanitation, by providing the healthier living environment, improving better facilities, by helping families move to the higher quality housing (Brennan, 2011).
2.4.8 POVERTY ALLEVIATION –
The main factor of Indian government “housing for all” mission is to reduce poverty in all over the country (Housing for All, 2015). For a developing country like India, this is a very crucial step for poverty alleviation. There are five main housing variables that can generate housing related forms of poverty: location, availability, quality, security, and cost. With the help of this government project, “housing for all” project will help to create jobs to work on this project. People those are uneducated and don’t have jobs can get training and work in this project as labor (Crisp, Eadson and While, 2016).
2.5 IMPACT OF SUSTAINABLE AFFORDABLE HOUSING ON INDIA’S ECONOMY –
For a developing country, affordable housing plays an important role, which indicates a balanced growth in the country.
In India, there are three broad parameters, which is based on affordability, size of the dwelling units, monthly household income, and affordability of house buyer. Global warming is one of the major problems nowadays in all over the world, each an every country is facing problems because of climate change (Gopalan and Venkataraman, 2015). India is also facing problems with Air pollution, water pollution, and land pollution, as the recent report India’s capital New Delhi was one of the polluted city due to a high level of toxic air pollution in 2016, the Indian government banned the construction and demolition in Delhi for 5 days. There are 5 relevant fields in order to unpack the complex relationships between low- income housing and sustainability in cities (Smets and van Lindert, 2016).
2.5.1 ECOLOGY AND ENERGY – Ecology and energy is very important in the aspects of sustainable affordable housing, the government should consider ecology and energy in construction projects (Schweitzer, 2016). Urban planning plays an important role to improve sustainability, through interventions that lower the carbon footprint. There are some important elements, which contribute to sustainable settlements such as clean water, improved sanitation and the collection of solid waste (Smets and van Lindert, 2016).
2.5.2 TECHNOLOGY AND PRODUCTION – In the development of sustainable disaster-proof building materials, Technology and production can play an important role for instance; components of prefabrication building can be recycled while producing locally building materials can minimize transport cost (Vokes and Brennan, 2013). Sustainability of low-income housing can be improved by these reasons. Based on relatively simple technologies, environment-friendly yet durable and affordable construction materials can be produced locally. In low-cost housing and self-managed housing, Adobe bricks, Bamboo, Timber, stabilized solid blocks and compressed earth blocks are just some of such materials that can be helpful (Smets and van Lindert, 2016).
2.5.3 ECONOMY – In many developing countries there are many massive public housing projects are implementing within a framework of state-regulated housing programmes by private construction companies. In these cases, the policy objective of stimulating macroeconomic growth seems to be of greater importance than that of housing the urban poor (Hindman et al., 2015). Nowadays, housing policies in many countries such as Mexico, China. According to the housing schemes in Mexico, they build these projects at a considerable distance from the city center, which would be expensive from the point of view of residents because residents have to take public transport to reach their jobs, to pay social visits to their friends and families, or to do their shopping. (Oses, 2013). To make the sustainable affordable housing programme successful, it is necessary to build the housing, which is connected to the city’s main employment center. To stimulate the neighborhood development economy, dwellings should offer the possibility of home-based activities.
2.5.4 Targeted policies – To prevent man-made hazards and to reduce greenhouse effects as well as to inform city planning that includes pro-poor measures, targeted policies play an important role. Targeted policies can also help to increase collaboration between local state and national levels. There should be maximum flexibility diversity in the policies of national and municipal housing policies (Smets and van Lindert, 2016).
2.6 SOCIO ECONOMIC IMPACT –
Socio economic is defined as the impact of a proposed development on the lives and circumstances of people, their communities and their families (Baker, 2014). According to the Stemplowski “The concept of development functions as both, a product of an optimistic vision and an articulation of social interests, and a tool of analysis.” Generally socio economic development based on two issues: nature of socio economic development and the scope of the concept of this type development and its reference.
According to the Fitch group rating agency, ‘housing for all mission’ program will help to increase the growth of Indian economy by 3.5% by 2022, But according to the Indian institute for human settlements (IIHS) says that rather than building new units, Indian government should focus on upgrading existing housing for communities (Sen, 2016).
In the metropolitan cities like Mumbai, there are 10-12 million people are living in the area of 437 square kilometers. 6 million of people in those areas are living in slums.
2.6.1 SOCIO ECONOMIC IMPACT OF SLUM REDEVELOPMENT ON RESIDENTS –
In India, there are many micro-entrepreneurship and spaces for the community gathering, small shops. Indian government’s aim is to maintain socio and economic sustainability through verticalizing these public spaces and by impressive architecture. The slum is an unhygienic place to live in; socio-economic status shows population or individual’s living standard. Education and occupation play an important role in the study of the socio-economic status of residents. Poverty is the main reason of slums and it can be resolved by the proper education and employment (Pawar and Mane, 2013). Poor sanitation is one of the biggest challenges in slum areas that cause most of the diseases. In worldwide, poor sanitation is the responsible for several existing diseases. Poor sanitation cause economic loss by the direct cost of treating illnesses, which caused by the poor sanitation and lost income through low productivity in the factories because they couldn’t work unless they recover from illness. The key economic impacts in ascending order of importance were tourism, user preferences (access time cost), water resources and health comes on the first (Van Minh and Hung, 2011). In Cambodia, around US$448 million per year has led to economic loss because of the poor sanitation if we translate this amount into per capita loss of approximately US$32. Indonesia has lost around US$6.3 billion because of the poor sanitation and un-hygiene living conditions that are around 2.3% of the GDP. In all over the world due to poor sanitation and unhygienic conditions, around 50,000 people died every year and caused at least 120 million disease episodes (Van Minh and Hung, 2011). Poverty affects the education, sex ratio, death ratio, health, nutrition, the socio-economic status and life expectancy. Education and skill level is very low in people those are living in slums due to the lower poverty economic status. Women those are living in slums have started to earn to improve the lower economic conditions and try to support family income. Population occupation plays an important role in socio-economic status (Pawar and Mane, 2013). In India, slum dwellers give a very bright picture of factors such as health status, type of house, caste, education, living environment of the family, the annual income of the family, religion, and occupation etc. (Sufaira, 2013).
In India, the social condition of the slum is not good, because of lack of electricity, drinking water, and basic amenities. In slums, economic condition is very low because of illiteracy, mostly slum dwellers work as rickshaw pullers, auto drivers, roadside small shops, laborer, house cleaners etc. the Low-income group with inadequate education are the characteristics of socio-economic status of slum dwellers. In socio-economic status, education and occupation play an important role. It’s very important to give good life and a better lifestyle to the people of slums for better socio-economic status (Singh, B. 2016).
India is a developing country with many projects from bullet trains to the world-class infrastructure, to give all the basic amenities to the people of slums is very important by the government. As per the project of government ‘housing for all mission 2022’ will give good socio-economic status by providing clean water, hygienic environment, electricity, fans, T.V etc. (Singh, B. 2016). Slum redevelopment program will help to increase economic opportunities. Some people those are working in factories such as cement factories, textile industries etc. they want to work on computers or offices rather than that kind of work. The Government will support their business ideas and help them by providing a loan to start their business (Burger et al., 2014). Slum redevelopment program will help to reduce the pollution such as noise pollution, air pollution, and lack of crowding as compare to the current situation of slums. By providing the better clean environment will provide them good health conditions so that they can have a good life.
This Project is for their better future. As compared to the slums, slum redevelopment program will help to increase the safety of the affordable housing by providing the main entrance. Children will get indoor play area as well as outdoors to play cricket, which will increase the safety of children. According to the Indian government’s affordable housing for all initiative, improved sanitation will bring multiple economic benefits such as – direct economic benefits of avoiding diseases, indirect economic benefits by reducing in working days lost to illness a longer lifespan and improved sanitation will also save time (Van Minh and Hung, 2011).
2.7 ACHIEVING THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS–
I In September 2015, world leaders of different countries met about the concern of climate change and talked about the new goals in the form of draft sustainable development goals (SDGs). Sustainable development goals cover the interconnected issues from social issues to economic growth. Every country needs the implementation of sustainable development goals (SDGs) in the accordance with local challenges and available resources. To achieve 2015 agenda, management of finance is the initial and important step (Singh and Pandey, 2012).
From the last decade India has been trying to meet its priorities of employment, energy security, economic growth, water, food, poverty alleviation and disaster resilience, Along with the democratic lines, India Indian government is trying to adopt transparent and robust governance. India got an opportunity to make some efforts in order to meet national and global aspirations in a defined time frame after 2015 Sustainable Development agenda framework. SDGs requires a good partnership between private sector, governments, and the development organizations. At a global level, according to the UNCTAD total investment suppose to be in the order of USD 5 to USD 7 trillion per year. In developing countries such as India, the total investment needs to be about 3.9 trillion per year mainly for basic infrastructure (sanitation, water, roads, ports, rail and power stations), climate change mitigation and food security (rural development and agriculture), education and health.