Cerebral immune response the eNO production increases, which acts
Cerebral ischemia reperfusion is characterized by multiple pathways such as oxidative stress and inflammatory responses which play a vital role in the pathophysiology of ischemic reperfusion brain injury (Glaura Fernandes Teixeira de Alcantara et al, 2017). The ischemia induces neutrophil infiltration in the penumbra regions of brain and the cerebral blood flow is restricted. Initially as an immune response the eNO production increases, which acts as vasodilator, but during the course of reperfusion for 6-24 h, the iNO production increases, which counteract the beneficial effects of eNO and results in the increased infarct volume, leading to various neurological disturbances (Tsai et al 2007). The statement is further evident by MRI studies 38. The fortified nutraceutical powders markedly restored the blood flow and greatly decreased the percentage of infract size by inhibiting the iNO and decreasing the aggregation of PMN cells. The results of the present study are in accordance with the previous reports.
The brain is the most vulnerable part, which requires ¼th of total oxygen supply for maintaining the internal homeostasis 25 during ischemia, the supply of oxygen and glucose is deprived which in turn increases the oxygen demand in the surrounding tissues and homeostasis is disturbed 26. During reperfusion, sudden bursts of free radicals cause accumulation of free radical species, which attacks proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, leading to disruption of cellular membrane and neuronal shunt which further increases the oxidative stress 29. Numerous studies have demonstrated that nutraceuticals are the promising tools in reduction of oxidative stress (charu gupta 2015). The phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, and vitamins exhibit significant antioxidant properties which are further evidenced by greatly restoring the antioxidant enzymes like SOD and CAT 31. Based on the results, the present study is in concordance with the above said statement.
Ischemia triggers various inflammatory cascades, which increases the generation of ROS and iNO which is involved in peroxidation of membrane bound polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) 41. The increased lipid peroxidation alters the mitochondrial respiratory chain and leads to irreversible secondary neuronal damage (MITSUO YAMAMOTO 1983). The level of lipid peroxidation is measured in terms of MDA. In the present study the MDA levels were decreased in treatment groups indicates that the fortified nutraceuticals restored the mitochondrial functions by inhibiting the ROS and iNO production. Further, in the present study the combination of powders showed a significant effect on restoration of cortical antioxidant enzymes and depletion of MDA levels when compared with the individual powders, which indicates the synergistic activity of the natural antioxidant compounds.