Assessment mg/l. This indicates that the nitrification –denitrification could

Assessment of Agriultural Drainage Water
Quality for Reuse in Irrigation Purposes

 

Walaa Assar

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Environmental Engineering Department.

Egypt-Japan University of Science and
Technology.

New Borg Al-Arab City, Alexandria, Egypt.

[email protected]

 

Ayman Allam

Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of
Engineering.

Kafr Elsheikh University, Egypt.

[email protected]

Ahmed Tawfik

Environmental Engineering Department.

Egypt-Japan University of Science and
Technology.

New Borg Al-Arab City, Alexandria, Egypt.

[email protected]

 

 

 

Abstract— Agricultural
drainage water (ADW) represented an excellent source for irrigation purposes
where the water quality in terms of pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), Turbidity, total
dissolved solids (TDS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate (NO3-N),
ammonia (NH4-N), total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended
solids (VSS), total organic carbon (TOC), inorganic carbon (IC) and total
carbon (TC) along El-Salam canal were assessed. The results revealed that all
parameters were complying for reuse in agricultural purposes except dissolved
oxygen. This was mainly due to dumping of pollutants into the canal. The COD
was varied from 4.66 to 32.6 mg/l. This is mainly due to discharge of domestic
wastewater which cause a serious depletion of dissolved oxygen (DO=3.98 mg/l).
The NO3
was quite low and varied from 0.49 to 1.89 mg/l while the ammonia concentration
along the canal was largely varied from 1.43 to 6.33 mg/l. This indicates that
the nitrification –denitrification could be occurred along the canal resulting
a deterioration of water quality along the canal. However, the ammonia and
nitrate are represented a good soil conditioner and minimizing the usage of
chemical fertilizers. Based on MIKE 11 data assimilation module, the constant
standard deviation (SD) at the boundary option is more reliable to   identify the contributions of uncertainties
associated with the discharges of the boundary source than the relative
standard deviation. Where, T-test
value between the prediction of relative SD 10 % and 40 % was not significant
0.00 (p>0.05). However, between the prediction of constant SD 0.1 and 0.5 was
0.01 (p>0.05).

Keywords— Data assimilation; Drainage water; El-salam canal; MIKE
11; Reuse; Water quality.

                                                                                                                                                     
I.      Introduction

Egypt produces approximately 17 BCM/year
agricultural drainage water (ADW) which mainly discharge into Mediterranean Sea.
However, the ADW represents an excellent source for irrigation in Egypt.
Therefore, the Egyptian government proposed El-Salam Canal to irrigate 620,000
feddans to increase the economy of the country and minimize the depletion of
the water in the sea. So far, water scarcity is a serious problem in various
countries including Egypt 1. The ADW is suffered from different sources of
pollution i.e. domestic and industrial wastewater 2. The pollutants could
affect negatively on the water quality. Therefore, a mixing of Nile river and
ADW with a proper ratio is existing. However, the huge amounts of pollutants
deteriorate the water quality of the canal.

Agricultural drainage water (ADW) is an
alternative option for reuse creating an economic value for the country where
the nutrients are presented 3,4. Egypt established El-Salam Canal for reuse
with a capacity of 2.11 Billion Cubic Meters (BCM)/year of the Nile water and 1.905
BCM/year of water from Bahr hadous drain and 0.435 BCM/year of El-serw drain
5. The canal water is mainly used  for
reclamation of 251,000 hectare of the desert located along the Mediterranean sea
of Egypt (90,000 hectare of which extend west of Suez Canal and about 161,000
hectares east of Suez Canal) 6. Unfortunately, El-salam Canal receives a
large amount of pollutants which cause a severe problems for the beneficiaries
and stalk holders. Some of treated wastewater is discharged and others without treatment
and drained into water bodies 7. Additionally, the water of El-salam Canal is
temporally facing a great challenge due to the shortage of water irrigation
from the Nile. Therefore, an assessment for the water quality along El-salam
canal for direct reuse in irrigation is urgently needed.

MIKE 11, which represents the most widely used
hydrodynamic simulation software, performing features of computational stability,
high accuracy and reliability, thus it can be easily used for the detailed
design, management and operation of both simple and complex channel systems 8.
Furthermore, MIKE 11 data assimilation module in this study applied to identify
the contributions of uncertainties associated with the discharges of the
boundary source.

                                                                                                                                      
II.    Material
and Methods

A.    Study
area

The El-Salam canal is the main water irrigation
source to Sinai Peninsula. The water is used to cultivate approximately 620,000
feddans. The canal is located in the Eastern North region of the Nile Delta,
with a total length of 88 km (Fig.1). The canal receives Nile fresh water from the
Damietta tributary of which situated at upstream of Fraskour Dam. The major
portion of agricultural drainage water (ADW) are
received from Fraskour, El-serw and Bahr hadous drains. The ratio of Nile water
and ADW was 1:1. This ratio provided total dissolved solids (TDS) of the mixed
water to be less than 1200 mg/l for irrigation according to Egyptian standards
for reuse 9, 10,
and 11. The
ADW supply sites for El-salam canal are from Fraskour drain at (1.80 km),
El-Serw drain at the (17.85 km) and Bahr Hadous drain at the (54.0 km) 12, Fig. 2.

Fig. 1.   
El-Salam
canal map

Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of
El-Salam canal.

B.    Sampling
sites and measurements

Water samples were collected from the intake of
the canal (0.00 km) and at eastward sites up to 88 km at Suez Canal, (Fig. 2). The
water were sampled from Damietta branch at 0.00 km (location 1), before and
after mixing with Faraskor drain (1.76 km -location 2)  (1.92 km -location 3), at 14.40 km (location
4), before mixing with El-serw drain at 18.00 (location 5), after mixing with
El-serw drain at 18.44 km (location 6), at 48.00 km (location 7), before mixing
with Bahr hadous drain at 53.90 km (location 8), and  after mixing with Bahr hadous drain at 54.55
km (location 9), at 68.75 km (location 10) and up to Suez Canal at 88.00 km
(location 11). Eleven representative water samples were monthly collected
during the spring season (from March to July 2017). Water samples were preserved
for physio-chemical analysis using 2 ml H2SO4 13.

C.    Analysis

The measured parameters
in situ were temperature of surface water and air, pH, turbidity, dissolved
oxygen (DO) and TDS. The measurements were by HQ30D portable multi meter.

A portion of samples were
transferred to the environmental laboratory of Egypt-Japan University for
Science and Technology (E-JUST) for analysis. The chemical oxygen demand (COD),
nitrate (NO3), ammonia (NH4-N), total suspended solids
(TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), total organic carbon (TOC), inorganic
carbon (IC), and total carbon (TC) was measured according to APHA (2005).

                                                                                                                                                 
III.   MIKE 11
model

A.    Model
Setup

The
MIKE 11 model was applied
to simulate the hydrodynamic and data assimilation of El-salam canal for reuse.
The model was initially developed by Danish Hydraulic Institute, for simulating
flows, water quality and sediment transport in rivers, estuaries and irrigation
systems 14. The MIKE 11 hydrodynamic (HD) is a one-dimensional, unsteady,
non-uniform flow simulation model describing the water motion by Saint-Venant
equations. The implicit finite difference six-point Abbott-Ionescu scheme is
adopted in pursuit of a solution 15

The uncertainty assessment is a powerful tool for
evaluating the effect of uncertainties on the boundary conditions in the canal
network 2. The uncertainty
analysis was performed to assess the uncertainties associated with the boundary
values. The analysis was applied based on MIKE 11 data assimilation (DA) module.
Monte Carlo simulation was
implemented to diffuse uncertainties in the boundary conditions in the
simulated output 16.

                                                                                                                                     
IV.   results
and Discussion

A.    Water
Quality Assessement

Fig. 3 shows the water
quality parameters (pH, DO, Turbidity, TDS, COD, NO3-N, NH4-N,
TSS, VSS, TOC, IC and TC) along El-Salam canal. The COD values were highly
fluctuated along the canal (Fig. 3). The COD was varied from 4.66 to 32.6 mg/l.
This is mainly due to discharge of domestic wastewater which cause a serious
depletion of dissolved oxygen (DO=3.98 mg/l). However, the COD values are
complying for reuse in limited irrigation purposes based Egyptian standards for
reuse of the drainage water in agricultural purposes 9 10 and Table 1. Likely, TOC values were ranged from 1.96
to 8.97 mg/l, these results are comparable to those obtained by Hafez 17. The pH values ranged from 7.29 to 7.98 which
is acceptable for reuse. An alkaline pH value give undoubtedly indication on
the algal growth.  Moreover, the pH value
could be increased due to the release of carbon dioxide where the nitrifiers
use it for ammonia oxidation. The DO values ranged from 3.98 to 8.33 mg/l,
which violated the allowable limit (> 5
mg/l). This could be attributed to the negative impact of the pollution of
El-Serw and Bahr Hadous drains which receives a significant amount of domestic wastewater
18. The most of oxygen is mainly consumed due to
the degradation of organic matter. The TDS values were highly fluctuated from 288.5
to 1094.5 mg/l resulting an average value of 528 mg/l, which complied for reuse
( 5

Turbidity (NTU)

3.70 – 32.41

15.04

NA

TDS (mg/l)

288.50 – 1094.50

528.00

0.05) and 0.07 (p>0.05), respectively. Moreover,
the T- value between the prediction of SD 10 % and 40 % was also not
significant, where T-test values were 0.01 (p>0.05).  While, at pump station no.2 the comparison
between the observation and the predicted discharges for the relative standard
deviations 10 % and 40 % were not significant where T-test values were 0.66
(p>0.05) and 0.38 (p>0.05), respectively. Moreover, the T- value between
the prediction of SD 10 % and 40 % was also not significant, where T-test
values were 0.00 (p>0.05).

The comparison between the observation and
the predicted discharges at pump station no.1 for the constant standard
deviations 0.10 and 0.50 were not significant where T-test values were 0.08
(p>0.05) and 0.06 (p>0.05), respectively. Moreover, the T- value between
the prediction of SD 0.10 and 0.50 was also not significant, where T-test
values were 0.02 (p>0.05).  While, at
pump station no.2 the comparison between the observation and the predicted
discharges for the constant standard deviations 0.10 and 0.50 were not
significant where T-test values were 0.68 (p>0.05) and 0.67 (p>0.05),
respectively. Moreover, the T- value between the prediction of SD 0.10 and 0.50
was also not significant, where T-test values were 0.01 (p>0.05).

 

 

 

 

 

Fig. 4. The observed and predicted
discharge data for SD 10% at pump station no. 1 (a) and 2 (b) of El-salam canal
for the period (October 2013 – July 2014).

 

 

 

 

Fig. 5. The observed and predicted
discharge data for SD 40% at pump station no. 1 (a) and 2 (b) of El-salam canal
for the period (October 2013 – July 2014).

 

 

Fig. 6. The observed and predicted
discharge data for SD 0.10 at pump station no. 1 (a) and 2 (b) of El-salam
canal for the period (October 2013 – July 2014).

Fig. 7. The observed and predicted
discharge data for SD 0.50 at pump station no. 1 (a) and 2 (b) of El-salam
canal for the period (October 2013 – July 2014).

                                                                                                                                                      
V.    conclusions

The water
quality parameters of El-Salam canal in terms of organics and nitrogen
compounds is reasonable for direct reuse in irrigation purposes in the areas
suffering from lack of water resources. Moreover, the current mixing ratio
between the ADW and the Nile fresh water (1:1) is quite sufficient to produce
an acceptable water quality. A shortage of the Nile water supply to El-Salam
canal would seriously effect on the quality and accordingly needs a proper
treatment process. For the data assimilation (DA) module, different values of relative and constant standard
deviations for the discharge were applied, (10 % and 40%), and
(0.10 and 0.50), respectively, at two locations namely Pump stations no. 1 and
2. Based on the results, the constant standard deviation at the boundary
option is more reliable to identify the contributions of uncertainties
associated with the discharges of the boundary source than the relative
standard deviation. The T-test
value between the prediction of SD 10 % and 40 % was not significant 0.00
(p>0.05). while, between the prediction of SD 0.10 and 0.50, the T-value was
0.01(p>0.05).

Acknowledgment

The first author would like to thank the
Egyptian Ministry of Higher Education (MoHE) for providing her the financial
support (Ph.D. Scholarship) for this research as well as the Egypt–Japan
University of Science and Technology (E-JUST) for offering the facility and the
tools needed to conduct this work.

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