Inflammatory
bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic inflammatory conditions of immune
system  affecting the gastrointestinal
tract and colon.There is an eqilibrium between the interaction of the gut microbiota
and the immune cells present over there. They help us to fight against the
invading pathogens coming in contact with the 
human gut through the contaminated 
food and water. Sometimes this equilibrium is disturbed in response to
certain genetic or environmental factors, resulting into the pathologies
associated with the gut and colon. It can be classified into two groups,
Crohn’s disease (CD) and ullcerative colitis (UC). Ulcerative colitis mainly
affects rectum and colon where as Crohn’s disease affects the whole
gastrointestinal tract. These disease are characterised by symptoms including
chronic abdominal pain, diarrhoea, ulcers in intestinal epithelial lining,
eroded mucosal layer and development of fistula in the rectum. Crohn’s disease
is more severe condition as compared to ulcerative colitis.  Method for the disease diagnosis during
clinical evaluation involves endoscopy and tissue biopsy, but these processes
are invasive, time consuming and expensive. Blood sample analysis of the
patients suffering form the disease have 
the supported the role of certain miRNAs in disease development, these
miRNAs can be used biomarkers for the noninvasive diagnosis technique.  Recently over 100 miRNAs was detected from the
blood sample of IBD patients, expresssed differentially1
. This differential expression also varied between UC and CD patients  from the normal human controls,  miRNA-23a, miRNA-29a, miRNA-106a, miRNA-107, ,
miRNA-191, miRNA-200c, miRNA-362-3p and miRNA-532-3p were expressed at
significantly higher
levels in the blood from patients 
suffering with CD as compared
to
the healthy individuals. MiRNA-21, miRNA-28-5p, miRNA-151, miRNA-155 and miRNA
188-5p were expressed at significantly higher levels in the blood from patients
suffering with UC as compared  to the
healthy individuals2. Some miRNAs were found to be expressed in both the conditions, they were
miRNA-16 , miRNA-199a-5p, miRNA-126,miRNA-127-3p, miRNA-29a, miRNA-29b
miRNA-19b and miRNA-324-3p.1, 3, 4  single downregulated
miRNA-505 was observed in the UC patients yet.

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