1. 5 9. Estimated Cost Built Up. 5 10.
1. Contents. i
2. Introduction. 2
of the Research. 3
of the Study. 4
6. Objectives. 4
7. Methodology. 4
Cost Built Up. 5
Resilience is a term that is becoming widely popular in a variety of
fields, ranging from psychology to business administration to disaster risk
reduction (Ingirige, Pathirage, Kulatunga,
Fernando & Thayaparan, 2016). The Oxford Dictionary defines
resilience as the capacity of a system to recover quickly from difficulties.
However, this definition is very broad and can be misinterpreted. Hence, the
term of resiliencies defined differently according to the field it is used in.
The definition can also change with the country or state it is applied to, as
the measuring parameters of resilience could differ with the differing social
and physical setting.
Sri Lanka annually experiences a numerous variety of disasters; disasters
due to climatic and seasonal changes (Example: floods, landslides) as well as
unpredictable and rare disasters (Example: Tsunami). The occurrence of such
disasters leads up to the loss of human and animal life, threat to personal and
social health and safety, economic losses and destruction to critical
infrastructure of a country. It could be hypothesized that the impact from these
disasters are much greater in Sri Lankan communities than the impact from a
same level disaster experienced by a developed country because the Sri Lankan
government and the relevant organizations currently pay more attention to post
disaster management, rather than concentrating equally on each part of a
disaster cycle (pre-disaster, disaster and post-disaster)
Hence, it is paramount that the country shifts its focus to the concept
of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR). In consideration, preparedness of a community
to face disasters is an important factor which should be thoroughly analyzed as
there is a direct correlation between preparedness of a system to how well a
system reacts in the face of a disaster.
The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015 – 2030 is a
voluntary and non-binding agreement which integrates disaster risk management
work and maps the progression of the world in that field throughout the next 15
years, and was taken up by UN Members on 18th March, 2015 (Aitsi-Selmi, Egawa, Sasaki, Wannous & Murray, 2015).
It is considered significant for its role in shifting from disaster
management to disaster risk reduction. This framework will be greatly
considered in this research study.
This research study will
attempt to derive a definition for resilience in the Sri Lankan context,
considering the physical and social aspects in the country. It will then intend
to use resilience as a tool to identify the preparedness of Sri Lankan
communities in the face of a disaster. Landslide disasters will be used as the
case study. Landslides are a very common type of hazard in Sri Lanka,
especially in the highlands. This makes it very effective case study for this
research. The landslides that have occurred in the recent past can be
categorized according to the size of impact on the community.
The current status of
disaster management in Sri Lankan communities can be described as inadequate,
as following a disaster the announcement of deaths, displacement of people and
property loss invariably follows. This research intends to study the significance
of using resilience as a tool to improve disaster risk reduction, using
landslide disasters as a case study.
of the Research
At present, the
Sri Lankan government and other disaster management organizations in the
country are mostly concerned with post disaster management which gives less
than ideal results for the disaster affected communities. Ergo, analyzing the
resilience of the community, in which case the community throughout the
complete cycle of the disaster will be considered, could be a satisfactory replacement.
Due to the high
rainfall as well as various human interferences, the mountainous regions of Sri
Lanka are very prone to experiencing landslide disasters, notably during the
North-East and South-West monsoonal periods (Ratnayake &Herath, 2005). Hence landslides can be considered as an appropriate case
study for the research.
of the Study
The research will be limited
to a certain size category of landslide disasters in Sri Lankan communities.
The landslide data considered will be limited to the past 15 years. The term
“community” in the research will exclude wildlife and ecosystems without any
The limitations in the study
can be attributed to the constraints in time and resources.
Ø Define “resilience” in terms
of Sri Lankan context
Ø Identify the parameters of
Ø Develop a framework to
evaluate resilience of a community in facing landslide disasters
Ø Provide recommendations and
guidelines for assessed communities having a high risjk due to landslides.
Ø Carry out a thorough literature survey to gain
an understanding regarding the aspects of resilience as defined by various
countries and organizations as well as regarding landslides in Sri Lanka.
Ø Identify organizations in Sri Lanka that are
responsible for landslide disaster management and mitigation and obtain
available data regarding the recent landslides that have occurred (Number of
years to be determined).
Ø With the obtained data, categorize the
landslides according to impact level and thereby choose a suitable category for
Ø Developing a questionnaire for the stakeholders
of landslide affected regions.
Ø Carry out field visits to areas that have
experienced landslides in the past (Consider both large and small landslide
Ø Carry out discussions and questionnaire survey
with the stakeholders of the relevant landslide regions.
Ø Identify parameters to measure the community, parameters
to measure a landslide and the risks and impacts caused by a landslide to a
Ø Identify the weightage each parameter could
contribute to the resilience of the community.
Ø Develop a layered framework using the
Cost Built Up
to Resources and Data
Ø Ingirige, B., Pathirage, C., Kulatunga, U.,
Fernando, T., Thayaparan, M. (2016). D4.1 EU-CIRCLE Resilience Framework –
Initial Version. A pan-European framework for strengthening Critical
Infrastructure resilience to climate change.
U., Herath, S. (2005). Changing rainfall and its impact on landslides in Sri
Lanka. Journal of Mountain Science,
2(3), 218-224. doi:10.1007/BF02973195
Definition of resilience in English. Retrieved from https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/resilience
A., Egawa, S., Sasaki, H., Wannous, C., Murray, V. (2015). The Sendai
Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. Renewing
the Global Commitment to People’s Resilience, Health, and Well-being. International
Journal of Disaster Risk Science, 6(2), 164-176. doi:10.1007/s13753-015-0050-9